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Table of Contents

Explanation of What Is Required During Ra'ma'dan
Determining when it is Ra'ma'dan.
How to fast.
What breaks one's fast.
Things which break one's fast.
Those who are forbidden to fast.
What to do if one breaks one's fast during Ra'ma'dan.
Those who only fast another day in the year.
Definition of Fi'dya'h.
Those required to fast and pay Fi'dya'h.
Definition of ka'ffara'h.
Those who are required to do ka'ffara'h.
Days one is forbidden to fast.

Za'kat-u'l-Fi'tr
Determining what to pay.
For whom Za'kah is required to be paid.
For whom you do not pay Za'kah.
What one must have before being required to pay Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr.
The time for paying Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr.
When it is allowed to pay Za'kah (Ja'i'z).         .
Intent.
Who may receive Za'kah.    
Eight groups of people who can receive Za'kah.  


EXPLANATION OF WHAT IS REQUIRED
DURING RA'MA'DAN

Fasting during Ra'ma'dan is required of all Muslims who are sane, have reached puberty as defined in Islam and do not have menstrual or post-partum bleeding. If a person does not have an Islamically valid reason for not fasting and does not fast, he has a sin for every day he does not fast. The person who is Islamically responsible for a child who is seven lunar years of age is required to order the child to fast if he is able to fast. If by ten lunar years of age a child does not fast, the child is forced to fast by means of punishment such as spanking, that is if he is able to fast. A child who is unable to fast cannot be forced to fast.

Others who are not required to fast are the insane, those who were sick and fasting is harmful to their health, those who are so old that fasting is harmful to them, those who are terminally ill and fasting is harmful to their health, and those who have menstrual or post-partum bleeding.

Since being Muslim is a requirement for fasting, the non-Muslim is not asked to fast, but rather he is required to become Muslim and then fas

  • Determining when it is Ra'ma'dan

Ra'ma'dan is the ninth month of the Arabic year. In Islam we follow the lunar calendar, so a month will always be twenty-nine or thirty days long. One is required to know when Ra'ma'dan begins and ends. This is done by looking for the crescent after the new moon on the thirtieth night of Sha'^ban (the month before Ra'ma'dan). (Note: Islamically the night of a day comes before the day and is referred to as the night of X day.) So if one sees the crescent on the thirtieth night of Sha'^ban, he is required by Allah to fast the next day or when Sha'^ban is thirty days, whether the crescent has been seen or not. The crescent may be seen on the thirtieth night of Sha'^ban in the western sky after sunset.

To know if it is Ra'ma'dan, one must either see the crescent for himself, or an Islamic judge will make it public that tomorrow is Ra'ma'dan after hearing a man who is ^a'dl witness (Ashha'du') that he has seen the crescent. A person who is ^a'dl does not commit large sins, his small sins are less than his good credits, and he behaves in the manner according to one of his rank. 

Fasting as defined in Islam means to not let anything with a volume enter the head or trunk of the body through a natural opening from the time a line of light appears on the eastern horizon until the sun goes completely below the western horizon.

There are five things one must do to fast correctly during the month of Ra'ma'dan.

  1. Intend in the heart the night before each day of Ra'ma'dan to fast tomorrow of Ra'ma'dan this year in obedience to Allah , knowing that Allah ordered him to fast during the month of Ra'ma'dan. For any day not fasted with the proper intent, one is required to abstain from all things which he would abstain from if he were fasting as well as fast another day during the year.

  2. One is required not to eat, drink or allow anything with a volume into the trunk of the body through a natural opening, or induce vomiting.

  3. One may not have sexual intercourse nor have an ejaculation stimulated by physical contact during the day.

  4. One is required to know the extremes of the day. The extremes of the day are when a horizontal line of light appears on the eastern horizon in the morning, and when the sun goes completely below the western horizon in the evening.

  • One is required not to say, do or believe ku'fr during the day or at any other time. ku'fr is any saying, deed or belief that causes one to be non-Muslim.

    • What breaks one's fast

    The following is a list of things which break one's fast. The phrase "during the day" means the time at which a horizontal line of light appears on the eastern horizon in the morning until the sun goes completely below the western horizon in the evening.

    • Things which break one's fast:

    1. Intentionally eating or drinking during the day.

    2. Intentionally smoking during the day.

    3. Using nose drops, suppositories or any medication that is introduced through a natural opening and leads to the trunk of the body during the day.

    4. Inducing vomiting during the day.

    5. Loss of one's mind, even for a moment, during the day.

    6. Intentionally having sexual intercourse during the day, remembering it is Ra'ma'dan. If a person was ignorant because he grew up far away from scholars or because he newly became Muslim, and did not know it was Ha'ram to intentionally have sexual intercourse during the day, if he had sex it does not break his fast.

    7. Having an ejaculation stimulated by any physical contact during the day.

    8. Having menstrual or post-partum bleeding during the day.

    9. Committing ku'fr during the day.

    10. Being in a coma all day long.

  • If someone pulls down and swallows mucus which was above the Adam's apple (the place of the exit of the letter "ha"), it breaks his fast. If someone puts something down his throat to the extent that it reaches the Adam's apple, it breaks his fast.   

  • It is Ha'ram for those who have menstrual or post-partum bleeding to fast while they have this bleeding during Ra'ma'dan.

    If someone is sick to the extent that fasting is harmful to his health, he is forbidden to fast. The extent to which he is sick is comparable to the case in which someone would do Atta'ya'mmu'm instead of Al-wu'du'. If someone had a scratch, he would not do Atta'ya'mmu'm; if someone is sick their sickness needs to be harmful enough for them not to fast.

    If someone breaks one's fast during the day during Ra'ma'dan, he is required to fast another day during the year, intending to fast for the day he did not fast during Ra'ma'dan.

    Depending on why a person did not fast, he is required to do certain things. Some must only fast for the day or days he did not fast during Ra'ma'dan. Some are required to fast and pay Fi'dya'h (to be defined later). Some are required to pay Fi'dya'h only. Some are required to fast and do ka'ffara'h (to be defined later).

    Those who are only required to fast the day or days they did not fast during Ra'ma'dan at another time during the year are:

    1. Those who were ill and became well enough to fast.

    2. Those who were traveling and started their journey before a horizontal line of light appeared on the eastern horizon, and whose journey was not forbidden in Islam.

    3. Women who had menstrual or post-partum bleeding.

    4. Those who ate or drank or broke their fast for no reason. They are required to do repentance as defined in Islam and fast the day or days they did not fast during Ra'ma'dan. They need to fast the day or days they need to make up immediately after the day of the ^id.

    5. Pregnant women and nursing mothers who were afraid fasting would harm their health.

    Fi'dya'h is one Mu'd of the staple food of the area. The staple food of an area is that food which provides people with their primary sustenance. For example, in China the staple food would probably be rice. In the United States it would usually be wheat. In Mexico it would probably be corn. Within a large country the staple food might be different from area to area.

    Mu'd: A double handful is called a Mu'd and is defined as that which fills both the hands of a medium sized man, when his hands are cupped together.

    1. Those included in the group who are required to only fast for the day or days they did not fast during Ra'ma'dan, if they did not make up the days before the next Ra'ma'dan, in addition to fasting, they are also required to pay Fi'dya'h.

    2. Pregnant women and nursing mothers who did not fast because they were afraid fasting would harm their child's health.

    Those who are required to only pay Fi'dya'h:

    1. Those who are terminally ill are required to pay Fi'dya'h, if they are able.

  • Those who are unable to fast due to age are required to pay Fi'dya'h, if they are able.

  • Ka'ffara'h is to free a Muslim slave. If this cannot be done, he is allowed to fast sixty consecutive days. If this cannot be done, he is required to pay one Mu'd of the staple food of the country to sixty poor Muslims.

    Those who are required to do Ka'ffara'h are those who intentionally had sexual intercourse during the day remembering it was Ra'ma'dan. Except if the one who did this did not know it was Ha'ram because he grew up far away from scholars or because he newly became Muslim. If someone was forced to have sex it does not invalidate his fast.

    There are certain days during the year on which it is forbidden to fast. If a person fasts on these days, he has a sin. There are two Islamic celebrations on which it is forbidden to fast:

    1. One is the day after Ra'ma'dan, the first day of Sha'wwal (the month after Ra'ma'dan).

    2. The other is the day after the day on which people on Ha'j stand on Mount ^a'rafat and the three following days. They are the tenth, eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth of Z'u'lhi'jja'h (this is the Arabic month during which Ha'j takes place).

    3. It is Ha'ram to fast the second half of Sha'^ban (the month before Ra'ma'dan) with the following exceptions:

      A) If someone was fasting the entire month of Sha'^ban, they are allowed to fast the second half.

      B) If someone is fasting days he needs to make up for a previous Ra'ma'dan, he may fast them during the second half of Sha'^ban.

      C) If someone was fasting days which are Su'nna'h to fast, such as Monday and Thursday, like our beloved prophet Mu'hammad used to fast, or if they were fasting every other day like prophet Dawud used to fast, they may continue to do this through the second half of Sha'^ban.

      D) If someone made Na'z'r (if someone makes it a requirement on himself by swearing to Allah to do something, this is known as Na'z'r. Na'z'r has further conditions), to fast a particular day during the second half of Sha'^ban, he is allowed to fast that day.

  • The thirtieth day of Sha'^ban is known as the "Day of Doubt" (this is a literal translation) on which some boys, women and those who commit large sins say they saw the crescent of Ra'ma'dan. It is Ha'ram to fast the "Day of Doubt" unless someone was already fasting that day as one of the exceptions mentioned above. A Muslim is required to know when Ra'ma'dan begins in the previously described manner.


  • ZA'KAT-U'L-FI'TR

    There is a Za'kah called Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr. This Za'kah is required to be paid by the Muslim who has more than enough to provide for himself and the ones he is Islamically responsible for, on the day of the celebration after Ra'ma'dan and the following night. If a person meets these conditions it is Fa'rd for him to pay Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr.

    • Intent

    It is required for a person to pay Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr, knowing it is required by Allah and intending to pay this Za'kah

    The amount to be paid is four Mu'd of the staple food of the area one is in. This amount is given for himself and additionally the same amount is given for each one of the people the person is Islamically responsible for. It is forbidden to put off paying this Za'kah after sunset on the day of the celebration.

     

    Those for whom one is required to pay Za'kah are:

    1. Himself.

    2. His wife. This includes someone he has divorced once or twice, if she is still in the time of ^i'dda'h.

    3. He is required to pay for her servant which she owns if she used to be served (had a servant) when she was at her parent's house.

    4. If she has a servant which she owns, but she did not have a servant when she was at her parent's house she is required to pay Za'kah if she is rich.

    5. He is required to pay Za'kah for his children who have not reached puberty.

  • If someone died before the sun went completely below the western horizon on the last day of Ra'ma'dan, you do not have to pay Za'kah for that person. If someone was born after the sun went completely below the western horizon on the last day of Ra'ma'dan, you do not have to pay Za'kah for that child. If a child was born right before the sun went below the horizon, you are required to pay Za'kah for that child. 

    1. Za'kah is not paid for ku'ffar. The kafi'r is not asked for Za'kah in this life, he is asked to become Muslim. He will be tortured in the next life for not becoming Muslim and not obeying Allah by doing what is required of him.

  • You do not pay Za'kah for your children who have reached puberty without their permission.

  • A person will be required to pay Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr only after he has more than enough money to cover his needs and the needs of those he is responsible for, as well as enough money to cover his debts, even if it was a debt for which payment was postponed.

    The needs for which he is required to cover are: food, shelter, clothing and sweets, if he was accustomed to having sweets for the ^id (^id is an Islamic celebration) and the night after the ^id.

    Paying Za'kah becomes Fa'rd (Waji'b) after the sun sets on the last day of Ra'ma'dan. This Za'kah may be paid any time during Ra'ma'dan. The following are further explanations of the times for paying Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr.

    It may be paid the first night of Ra'ma'dan. There is a condition that the one who pays the Za'kah does not become poor and his situation remains such that he is required to pay Za'kah through part of the month after Ra'ma'dan (Sha'wwal). The one to whom he paid the Za'kah is still eligible to receive Za'kah by sunset on the day of the ^id.

    Paying Za'kah becomes Fa'rd (required by Allah to be paid, if not paid one has a sin) at this time (Waji'b): After the sun sets on the last day of Ra'ma'dan.

    It is Su'nna'h to pay Za'kah at this time (Wa'qtu'l-Fadila'h): During the day before the prayer of the ^id.

    It is Ma'kruh to pay Za'kah at this time (Wa'qtu'l-ka'raha'h): After the prayer of the ^id, unless he was waiting for a poor relative.

    It is Ha'ram to pay Za'kah at this time (Hu'rma'h): One has a sin if he postpones paying Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr after the sun sets on the day of the ^id, unless he is waiting to have access to his money, which is within Ma'rha'la'ta'yn (the distance it takes two days to cross on foot). If his money was Ma'rha'la'ta'yn or further, he is not required to pay.

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    In paying all types of Za'kah, one is required to make the intent to pay Za'kah for what is required. For example, in the case of Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr, he is required to intend to pay Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr for himself and make the intent for Za'kat-u'l-fi'tr for his children, et cetera. The intent needs to be made in the heart.

    It is Ha'ram to pay Za'kah to anyone other than those eight groups that are mentioned in the Qur'an in Sura't-u'tta'wba'h.

    The poor in Islam are divided into two types:

    1. Fa'qir: The one who has less than half of what they need. For example, the Fa'qir needs ten dollars to meet his needs, but he can only get four and cannot find work to meet his needs. This person is considered Fa'qir. When considering someone, you take into account all his responsibilities for his wife, children and parents.

    2. Mi'skin: The one who has less than what they need. For example, the Mi'skin needs ten dollars to meet his needs, but he can only get eight and cannot find work to meet his needs. This person is considered Mi'skin. (Note: 'Need' here refers to vital needs of food, shelter and clothing).

    3. Al^ami'lina'-^a'la'yha: Those who are appointed by the Caliph or the Sultan to be sent to collect Za'kah, find and gather those who are eligible to receive Za'kah,weigh Za'kah, those who keep records of Za'kah, and others who do similar work. These people are paid for their work.

    4. Za'kah may be paid to someone who newly becomes Muslim, is weak in Islam and feels strange among Muslims. It is allowed to give this person Za'kah in order to strengthen him in Islam.

    5. Za'kah may be given to Muslim slaves that have made agreements with their owners that if they pay him money, they will be freed.

    6. Those who are fighting in obedience to Allah and are not paid from Fa'y'.

    7. The one who was traveling, and his travel is allowed. He needs money to get home, and does not have enough money for his journey. He may be given Za'kah.

  • Those who borrowed money and used it in a way that is Ha'lal, if the debt became due and they did not have the money to repay it, they are allowed to take Za'kah for the exact amount of the debt.

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        Please Do Du'^a' To Author  And All Those Who Were Involved In This Honorable Project.

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